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Narrative Text : Definition, Purposes, Generic Structures, Language Features

Narrative adalah cerita khayal yang bertujuan menghibur pembaca. Tentu yang namanya cerita khayal itu ya belum tentu keberannya karena bisa jadi itu hanyalah imaginasi atau cerita fiktif yang dibuat oleh seseorang atau cerita buatan sekelompok masyarakat yang tida terbukti kebenarannya. Contoh narrative yaitu, Cinderella, Sangkurian, Snow White, Rabbit and Crocodile, dsb. Untuk penjelasan lebih rinci silahkan baca penjelasan berikut

Definition of Narrative Text
A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang).

Generic Structure of Narrative Text
# Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana)
# Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)
# Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, secara baik “happy ending” ataupun buruk “bad ending”.
# Coda / reorientation (optional) – lesson from the story

Kadangkala susunan (generic structure) narrative text bisa berisi: Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Meski “Evaluation” dan “Reorientation” merupakan optional; bisa ditambahkan dan bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.



The Characteristics / Language Feature of Narrative Text:
– Past tense (killed, drunk, etc)
– Adverb of time (Once upun a time, one day, etc)
– Time conjunction (when, then, suddenly, etc)
– Specific character. The character of the story is specific, not general. (Cinderella, Snow White, Alibaba, etc)
– Action verbs. A verb that shows an action. (killed, dug, walked, etc)
– Direct speech. It is to make the story lively. (Snow White said,”My name is Snow White). The direct speech uses present tense.

Read text carefully and see the translation
The Rabbit and the Turtle

One day a rabbit was boasting about how fast he could run. He was laughing at the turtle for being so slow.

Much to the rabbit’s surprise, the turtle challenged him to a race. The rabbit thought this was a good joke and accepted the challenge. The fox was to be the umpire of the race. As the race began, the rabbit raced way ahead of the turtle, just like everyone thought.

The rabbit got to the halfway point and could not see the turtle anywhere. He was hot and tired and decided to stop and take a short nap. All this time the turtle kept walking step by step by step. He never quit no matter how hot or tired he got. He just kept going.

However, the rabbit slept longer than he had thought and woke up. He could not see the turtle anywhere! He went at full-speed to the finish line but found the turtle there waiting for him.

Terjemahan Cerita Narrative Bahasa Inggris The Rabbit and the Turtle

Suatu hari seekor kelinci membual tentang kecepatannya dalam berlari. Diamenertawakan kura-kura karena begitu lambat.

Kelinci itu begitu terkejut karena ternyata kura-kura berani menantangnya untuk berlari. Kelinci pikir ini lelucon dan akhirnya menerima tantangan itu. Dalam lomba lari itu, seekor rubah adalah wasitnya. Seperti yang sudah dibayangkan banyak pihak. saat balapan dimulai, kelinci berlari jauh di depan kura-kura.

Kelinci sudah sampai setengah perlombaan dan tidak bisa melihatkura-kura bisa menyusulnya. Saat itu cuaca panas dan melelahkan, kelinci itu memutuskan untuk berhenti dan tidur sejenak. Saat itu kura-kura terus berjalan selangkah demi slangkah demi selangkah lagi. Dia tidak pernah berhenti tidak peduli seberapa panas atau betapah melelahkannya. Dia terus berjalan.
Namun, kelinci tidur kelamaan dari perkiraanya. Ketika terbangun, dia tidak melihat kura-kura dimana pun. Dia lari dengan kecepatan penuh menuju garis finish tetapi mendapati kura-kura sudah menunggunya disana.

Pesan Moral Value dari Cerita Fable The Rabbit and the Turtle
Lawan yang lemah kalau diremehan bisa berubah menjadi lawan yang tak bisa terkalahkan. Jangan pernah underestimate kepada siapapun. Orang yang tampangnya biasa saja, mungkin ternyta menyimpan potensi yang lebih besar dari pada kita.

Never underestimate the weakest opponent.

Cinderella
Orientation
Once upon time, there was a beautiful girl called Cinderella. She lived with her stepsisters and stepmother. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.
Complication
One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsisters did not let her go, so Cinderella was very sad. The stepsisters went to the ball without her.
Resolution
Fortunately, the good fairly came and helped her to get to the ball. At the ball, Cinderella danced with the prince. The prince felt in love with her then he married her. They live happily ever after.

(Dahulu kala, ada seorang gadis cantik bernama Cinderella. Dia tinggal bersama saudara tiri dan ibu tiri nya. Mereka sangat suka memerintah. Dia harus melakukan semua pekerjaan rumah tangga.
Suatu hari sebuah undangan untuk sebuah pesta datang ke keluarga itu. Saudara tiri nya tidak membiarkan dia pergi, sehingga Cinderella sangat sedih. Saudara tiri pergi ke pesta itu tanpa dia.
Untungnya, peri yang baik datang dan membantunya untuk sampai ke pesta itu. Pada pesta itu, Cinderella berdansa dengan pangeran. Pangeran jatuh cinta padanya kemudian ia menikahinya. Mereka hidup bahagia selamanya.)

Catatan :
Ball : diartikan pesta bukan bola.

Tugas :
1. Analisa generic structure dari text yang berjudul Cinderella diatas !
2. Apa moral value (nilai moral) yang dapat diambil dari text diatas?

Contoh Text Narative lagi
Snow White
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. (Orientation)
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. (Major Complication)
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. (Resolution)
She was very tired and hungry. (Complication)
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. (Resolution)
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, ‘My name is Snow White’. (Complication)
Doc said, ‘If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, ‘Oh could I? Thank you.’ Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. (Major Resolution)

Task :
Translate the text above into Indonesian !

Origin of the Snail House
In ancient times, the snails did not bring their home anywhere. In the beginning, snails lived in an abandoned bird’s nest in the trees. The night was warm and the day was cool because the leaves shaded the nest where the snails lived. But when the rains came, the leaves could no longer block the rain that fell. Snails caught cold and wet when the rainy season arrived.

Then the snails moved into the holes in the trunks of trees. When the day was hot, the snails were well protected, even if it rained. It looked like that I had found a suitable home for me, the snail said in his heart.
But on a sunny day, there came a woodpecker. Tok..tok … tok … woodpecker kept pecking the trunks where the snails lived. Snails became very distracted and could not sleep. With annoyed heart, snails went out of the hole in the trunk and looked for a place to stay next. Snails found a hole in the ground, which seemed to be warm when the night came, thought snails. Snails cleaned up those holes and decided to stay in it. But it turned out when the night came. The rats came from all directions to damage the hole. Again and again, the snails had to leave the hole to find a new home.

Snails then moved on to the edge of the beach filled with coral reefs. He thought that the sidelines of the corals might be his home. Snails could take a rest peacefully in this place. But when the tide rose up to the top of the rock, snail was swept away along with the surge of the waves. As usual, the snails had to go away to find a new home. When he was walking away from the beach, the snail found an empty shell. This shape was beautiful and very light. Being tired and cold, snails went into the shell. Snails felt warm and comfortable then he slept in it.

When the morning came, snails realized that he had found the best home for himself. He did not need to go home in hurry if it rained. He also would not get heat anymore, and no one would bother him. He then brought it home with him wherever he went.

Asal Mula Rumah Siput

Pada zaman dahulu, siput tidak membawa rumahnya kemana-mana. Awalnya siput tinggal di sarang burung yang sudah ditinggalkan induk burung di atas pohon. Malam terasa hangat dan siang terasa sejuk karena daun-daun menaungi sarang tempat siput tinggal. Tetapi ketika musim hujan datang, daun-daun itu tidak bisa lagi menghalangi air hujan yang jatuh. Siput menjadi basah dan kedinginan saat musim hujan tiba.

Kemudian siput pindah ke dalam lubang yang ada di batang-batang pohon. Jika hari panas, siput terlindung dengan baik, bahkan jika hujan turun. Sepertinya aku menemukan rumah yang cocok untukku, kata si siput dalam hati.
Tetapi pada suatu hari yang cerah, datanglah burung pelatuk. Tok..tok…tok…burung pelatuk terus mematuk batang pohon tempat siput tinggal. Siput menjadi terganggu dan tidak bisa tidur. Dengan hati jengkel, siput keluar dari lubang yang ada di batang pohon tersebut dan mencari tempat tinggal selanjutnya. Siput menemukan sebuah lubang di tanah, yang nampaknya hangat jika malam datang, pikir siput. Siput membersihkan lubang tersebut dan memutuskan untuk tinggal di dalamnya. Tetapi ternyata ketika malam datang, tikus-tikus datang dari segala arah merusak rumah siput. Lagi dan lagi, siput harus pergi meninggalkan lubang itu untuk mencari rumah baru.

Siput kemudian berjalan terus sampai di tepi pantai yang penuh dengan batu karang. Ia berfikir sela-sela batu karang mungkin dapat menjadi rumahnya. Siput pun dapat beristirahat dengan tenang di tempat tersebut. Tetapi ketika air laut pasang dan naik sampai ke atas batu karang, siput ikut tersapu bersama dengan derasnya ombak tersebut. Seperti biasa, siput harus kembali pergi mencari rumah baru. Ketika ia sedang berjalan meninggalkan pantai, si siput menemukan sebuah cangkang kosong, bentuknya cantik dan sangat ringan. Karena lelah dan kedinginan, siput masuk ke dalam cangkang tersebut. Siput merasa hangat dan nyaman lalu tertidur di dalamnya.

Ketika pagi tiba, siput menyadari telah menemukan rumah terbaik untuknya. Ia tidak perlu lagi cepat-cepat pulang jika hujan turun. Ia juga tidak akan kepanasan lagi, dan tidak ada yang akan mengganggunya. Ia kemudian membawa rumah ini bersamanya kemanapun ia pergi.

Itulah gambaran tentang Narrative text. Semoga bermanfaat

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