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Jenis-Jenis Text Bahasa Inggris (Lengkap)

Genre In English

  1. Descriptive Text

 

Definition of Descriptive Text

Teks yang menjelaskan gambaran tentang seseorang, tempat, binatang atau benda.

 

Generic Structure of Descriptive Text

# Identification : (berisi tentang pengenalan seseorang, tempat, binatang atau benda yang akan dideskripsikan.)

# Description : (berisi tentang penggambaran tentang seseorang, tempat, binatang atau benda dengan menyebutkan beberapa bagiannya, bentuknya, warnanya, sifatnya, dll.)

 

Purpose of Descriptive text

To describe …. in specific

To describe a particular person or thing or place specifically

 

Language Feature (Ciri-ciri bahasanya)

– Specific participant : memiliki obyek tertentu, tidak bersifat umum dan unik (hanya ada satu)

misalnya : bandengan beach, my house, borobudur temple, uncle Joko

– Penggunaan adjective (kata sifat) untuk memperjelas noun (kata benda)

misalnya : a beautiful beach, a handsome man, the famous place in jepara dll

– Penggunaan simple present tense : Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah simple present karena menceritakan fakta dari obyek deskripsi.

 

Example

Jakarta City

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. It is centrally located within the country on the northwest coast of Java Island at the mouth of the Ciliwung river. Jakarta dominates Indonesian’s administrative, economy, cultural activities, and is a major commercial and transportation hub within Asia-with a population of about 9 million, Jakarta has more people than any other cities in Indonesia.

The climate is hot and humid year-round. Rainfall occurs throughout the year, although it is the heaviest from November to May. To average annual precipitation in Jakarta is 1, 790 mm. The city lies on a flat, low plain and is prone to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall. Kota is city’s oldest commercial area. It is located south of the old Sunda Kelapa harbour. Glodok, the south of Kota is a banking, retail and residential neighborhood with a large Chinese population. Merdeka Square with Monas (The National Monument) dominates the city’s central district. Surrounding the square are Istana Merdeka, the presidential palace, the National Museum, and the Istiqlal Mosque.

 

Jenis-Jenis Text Bahasa Inggris

 

  1. Recount Text

 

Definition of Recount Text

Sebuah teks yang menceritakan kembali kejadian atau pengalaman masa lampau

 

Generic Structure of Recount Text

# Orientation : berisi background informasi mengenai siapa, dimana, dan kapan peristiwa itu terjadi.

# Events : kejadian-kejadian

# Re-orientation : berisi opini penulis mengenai apa yang terjadi di akhir cerita

 

Language Feature (Ciri-ciri bahasanya)

– Using past tense

– Using temporal sequence, e.g. On Saturday. On Monday, On Sunday

 

Purpose of Recount Text

To retell past experience

 

Read text carefully and see the translation

Being Late

Last morning, Dinar, my roommate woke up late and she had to go to campus.
When she wanted to take her motorcycle, in fact she couldn’t move it because there were some motorcycles that blocked up her motorcycle.

She tried to move all of the motorcycles, so that her motorcycle could move from the garage. But she couldn’t do it.

Then, she called Adel who had that motorcycle which blocked it up. After that, her friend who had that motorcycle helped her. Finally, she could move her motorcycle and rode it to go to campus.

 

 

  1. Procedure Text

 

Definition of Procedure Text
Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments (Text yang memberikan instruksi bagaimana melakukan aktivitas tertentu, misalnya, resep makanan, aturan game, percobaan-percobaan ilmiah)

Generic Structure of Procedure Text
# Goal : tujuan. (e.g : How to make spagheti)
# Material or Ingredient : bahan-bahan. (e.g : the material to cook omelette are egg, onion, vegetable oil, etc. )
# Step : langkah-langkah. (e.g : first, wash the tomatoes, onion, …., second cut the onions becomes slice. . . )

 

Purpose of Procedure Text

To explain how to…

To explain steps/instruction to…

 

Language Feature of Procedure Text:
– Use adverbial of sequence / Using temporal conjunction (e.g: first, second, third, the last)
– Use command / imperative sentence (e.g : put the noodles on the . . ., cut the onion. . ., wash the tomatoes. . . )
– Using Simple Present Tense

 

  1. Narrative Text

 

Definition of Narrative Text
Narrative text adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang.
Generic Structure of Narrative Text
# Orientation : (berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana)
# Complication : permasalahan
# Resolution : Masalah selesai, secara baik “happy ending” ataupun buruk “bad ending”.
# Coda / reorientation (optional) – lesson from the story

 

Purpose of Narrative text

To entertain the reader

 

Language Feature of Narrative Text:
– Past tense
– Adverb of time (Once upon a time, one day, long time ago, etc)
– Direct speech. It is to make the story lively. (Snow White said,”My name is Snow White). The direct speech uses present tense.

 

Read text carefully and see the translation

Cinderella

Once upon time, there was a beautiful girl called Cinderella. She lived with her stepsisters and stepmother. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.

One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsisters did not let her go, so Cinderella was very sad. The stepsisters went to the ball without her.

Fortunately, the good fairly came and helped her to get to the ball. At the ball, Cinderella danced with the prince. The prince felt in love with her then he married her. They live happily ever after.

 

  1. News Item

 

Definition of News Item

News item adalah teks yang memberikan informasi tentang kejadian / peristiwa harian. Mudahnya news item adalah berita

 

Generic Structure of News Item

# Main Events : Kejadian utama yang diberitakan

# Elaboration : Penjelasan mengenai latar belakang adanya peristiwa tersebut; orang-orang yang terlibat dalam peristiwa tersebut; tempat dan waktu peristiwa terjadi; dan lain-lain.

# Resource of Information (Source) : Sumber berita; komentar para saksi; pendapat para ahli; dan lain-lain.

 

Purpose of News Item

To inform…

To present information..

 

Language Feature of News Item

– Focusing on circumstances (bahasanya singkat padat dan tidak bertele-tele)

– Using saying verbs : “….”, She said, / He said

– Kadang di awal ditulis tempat kejadian.

 

Read text carefully and see the translation

Town Contaminated

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

(Moskow – Seorang wartawan Rusia telah menemukan bukti dari bencana nuklir soviet yang lain, yang menewaskan 10 pelaut dan mencemari seluruh kota).

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarie at the naval base of Shkotovo- 22 near Vladivostok. The accident which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

(Yelena Vazrshavskya adalah wartawan pertama yang berbicara dengan orang-orang yang menyaksikan ledakan kapal selam nuklir di pangkalan angkatan laut Shktovo- 22 dekat Vladivostok. Kecelakaan itu terjadi 13 bulan sebelum bencana Chernobyl, menyebarkan radioaktif jatuh keluar menutupi landasan itu dan kota di dekatnya, tetapi ditutup-tutupi oleh para pejabat dari Uni Soviet. Warga diberitahu ledakan tersebut di reaktor kapal selam Victor-Class selama reparasi telah menjadi “sesuatu yang panas”, dan bukan ledakan nuklir. Dan mereka yang terlibat dalam operasi pembersihan untuk menghapus lebih dari 600 ton bahan yang terkontaminasi disumpah untuk menjaga rahasia.)

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

 

  1. Analytical exposition

 

Definition of Analytical Exposition Text
Teks yang menyampaikan pendapat tentang fenomena di sekitar.

 

Generic Structure of Analytical exposition Text
# Thesis: (berisi topik dan menjelaskan sudut pandang/opini penulis)
# Argument : (berisi argument-argument untuk mendukung pendapat)

# Reiteration: (Menyatakan kembali sudut pandang penulis / untuk memperkuat tesis.)

 

Kita dapat menggunakan frase berikut untuk membuat kesimpulan dalam Reiteration From the fact above …

I personally believe ….

Therefore, my conclusion is ….

In conclusion …

 

Purpose of Analytical Exposition Text

To analyze the topic

 

Language Feature of Analytical exposition Text:
– Using Simple Present Tense

– ada beberapa agument yang diawali dengan, firstly, secondly, thirdly..

– Ada frase berikut :

From the fact above …

I personally believe ….

Therefore, my conclusion is ….

In conclusion …

 

Read text carefully and see the translation

Cars should be banned in the city

Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ of asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.

Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.

Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone.

In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.

 

Translation

Mobil seharusnya dilarang di kota. Seperti yang kita semua tahu, mobil menciptakan polusi, dan menyebabkan banyak kematian di jalan dan kecelakaan lainnya.

Pertama, mobil, seperti yang kita semua tahu, berkontribusi terhadap sebagian besar polusi di dunia. Mobil mengeluarkan gas mematikan yang menyebabkan penyakit seperti bronkitis, kanker paru-paru, dan ‘pemicu’ asma. Beberapa penyakit ini begitu buruk bahwa orang bisa mati dari mereka.

Kedua, kota ini sangat sibuk. Pejalan kaki berjalan di mana-mana dan mobil umumnya menabrak pejalan kaki di kota, yang menyebabkan mereka mati. Mobil saat ini adalah pembunuh jalan terbesar kami.

Ketiga, mobil sangat bising. Jika Anda tinggal di kota, Anda mungkin merasa sulit untuk tidur di malam hari, atau sulit berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan Anda, dan terutama berbicara dengan seseorang.

Kesimpulannya, mobil harus dilarang dari kota karena alasan yang tercantum.

 

 

  1. Report Text

 

Report text adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal secara apa adanya. Genre atau jenis text ini memang ada kesamaan dengan descriptive text yaitu, baik descriptive text dan report text sama sama memberikan gambaran secara langsung tentang seseorang atau suatu benda. Perbedaannya adalah jika kita berbicara tentang benda atau seseorang secara spesifik seperti warna, style, nama, dsb, itu disebut descriptive. Dan apabila kita berbicara tentang benda atau seseorang secara umum yang meliputi bagian-bagiannya, kekuatannya, fungsinya, atau sifat umum lain dari benda atau seseorang seseorang itu disebut report.

 

Definition of Report text

Report adalah teks yang menghadirkan informasi secara umum dan apa adanya.

 

Generic Structure of Report text

# General Clasification ; Menyatakan klasifikasi aspek umum hal; hewan, tempat umum, tanaman, dll yang akan dibahas secara umum.

# Description : Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah.

 

Purpose of Report text

  • To describe …….. in general.
  • To presenting information about (something), as it is.

 

Language Feature of Report text:

– Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns, eg our dog;

– Use of Present Tense

 

Example

Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn. (Thanksgiving atau Hari Thanksgiving adalah perayaan panen, syukur untuk perdamaian, dan upaya penduduk asli Amerika. Hal ini biasanya dirayakan di akhir musim gugur)

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

(Di masa lalu, Thanksgiving dirayakan untuk panen kaya mereka di New England. Namun di Amerika Utara, pada awalnya diadakan untuk bersyukur kepada Tuhan untuk kelangsungan hidup mereka di tanah baru yang tidak mudah bagi mereka. Namun, di Kanada, itu telah dirayakan sebagaimana di New England. Thanksgiving sekarang dirayakan di Amerika Serikat dan di Kanada. Festival Thanksgiving diadakan setiap Kamis keempat bulan November di Amerika Serikat dan pada hari Senin kedua bulan Oktober di Kanada. Hal ini biasanya dirayakan dalam empat sampai lima hari di Amerika Utara dan selama tiga hari di Kanada.)

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.

(Hal ini dirayakan seluruh keluarga dan teman-teman yang berkumpul untuk makan dan memberikan keberuntungan. Ayam jago adalah hidangan utama di makan malam Thanksgiving. Parade Thanksgiving juga biasanya diadakan. Dalam Thanksgiving rumah yang dihiasi dengan karangan bunga, bunga segar dan kering. Lampu dinyalakan untuk mencerahkan lingkungan. Tabel dihiasi dengan piring perak antik dan yang terbaik dari China untuk menandai peristiwa.)

 

 

  1. Spoof text

 

Definition of Spoof Text

Cerita yang bagian akhirnya lucu. / Cerita yang didalamnya ada kejadian-kejadian dan diakhiri dengan suatu yang lucu dan tidak terduga.

 

Generic structure of Spoof Text

#Orientation

Pembukaan cerita

#Events

(Berisi kejadian-kejadian)

#Twist

Akhir cerita yang lucu dan tidak dapat diprediksi.

 

Purpose of Spoof Text

To entertain the reader with a funny story.

 

Language of feature Spoof Text

Menggunakan past text

Akhir cerita lucu (terdapat twist)

 

Example

One day, when Nasreddin was still young, his mother would have something to do outside. Before leaving, She said to Nasreddin, “Nasreddin, since you are at home alone, you have to watch the door carefully. Don’t let anyone in. There have been many thieves recently.”

Nasreddin, therefore, sat by the door. An hour later, his uncle came. “Where is your mother?” He asked.

“She is out,” Nasreddin answered.

“My family will be here altogether this evening. Go and tell your mother not to be away this evening”.

As his uncle left, Nasreddin started thinking, “Mother told me to watch the door. Uncle asked me to find her and tell her that he would be here with the whole family.”

Having thought over and over, he finally made a decision. He pulled the door up, carried it, and went to meet his mother.

 

 

  1. Hortatory exposition

 

Definition of Hortatory Exposition

Text yang menyampaikan pendapat dan diakhiri dengan bujukan.

 

Generic structure Hortatory Exposition

Thesis

(Berisi pengenalan ide yang akan dibahas)

Arguments

(Berisi alasan-alasan untuk memperkuat ide di bagian tesis.)

Recommendation

(Berisi bujukan atau anjuran penulis terhadap pembaca.)

 

Language feature of Hortatory Exposition

Simple present tense

berisi bujukan, dengan kata “we should..” : kita seharusnya … , “we must…” : kita harus…

 

Example

NEVER TRY SMOKING

A lot of people, especially teenagers, who do not smoke, always want to try smoking. They know it is bad for them and all, but it is just something they want to try. So they ask one of their smoker friends for a cigarette. Admittedly, they firstly can not light it on their own so they ask his friend to do it. Then they inhale that cigarette and smoke occasionally.

Apparently that makes them the born smokers. Now they do smoke fairly regularly. They can not avoid smoking and they enjoy too. They have smoker friends. Everyday they bring a pack in their pocket. For them, a pack of cigarette is as important as a wallet for their money.

Suddenly, for certain reason, they realize the fact that tobacco is the cause of a long list of nasty diseases. It is not only heart disease, stroke, and chronic lung disease but also bladder, lung, and pancreatic cancer. Even it was reported that around 400,000 Americans died each year. It was one every 80 seconds from tobacco-related illnesses.

Then they decide it is stupid to harm selves. They want to quit smoking. Unfortunately, they find that quitting smoking is so difficult. “Why can’t I stop smoking? I really want to stop it”. It is hard to quit because nicotine is powerfully addictive. Cigarette is one of the most efficient drug-delivery devices ever devised. As result, when people try to quit smoking, they often experience classic nicotine withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, headache, depression, and restlessness.

Well, still want to try smoke? Think the facts before trying! If you are not smoker, you should never and never try to smoke.

 

 

  1. Explanation Text

 

Definition of Explanation Text

Text yang menjelasan tentang proses yang berhubungan dengan fenomena-fenomena alam, soisal, ilmu pengetahuan, budaya dan lainnya

 

Generic Structure of Explanation Text

General statement

(berisi tentang penjelasan umum tentang fenomena yang akan dibahas, bisa berupa pengenalan fenomena tersebut atau penjelasannya.)

Sequenced of explanation

(berisi tentang penjelasan proses mengapa fenomena tersebut bisa terjadi atau tercipta.)

 

Purpose of Explanation Text

To explain the processes…..

To explain how or why something happens.

 

Ciri Kebahasaan Explanation Text

Simpel present tense

Terdapat penjelasan mengenai proses..

 

Example

Making Paper from Wood chips

(General statement)

Do you know that paper is made from wood? Ya, paper that we use in our daily life is made from wood or tree. The process of making paper from wood is quite long. The process is called wood-chipping. Wood-chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.

(Sequence of explanation)

The wood-chipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called wood chips. The wood chips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

 

Terjemahan:

 

Apakah anda tahu bawah kertas itu terbuat dari kayu? Ya, kertas yang kita gunakan di kegiatan sehari-hari adalah terbuat dari kayu atau pohon. Proses pembuatan kertas dari kayu cukup pajang. Proses tersebut dinamakan woodchipping. Woodchipping adalah proses yang digunakan untuk memperoleh produk bubur kertas dan kertas dari pohon-pohon hutan.

Proses woodchipping dimulai ketika pohon ditebang di area yang dipilih dari hutan yang disebut coupe. Selanjutnya bagian atas dan cabang-cabang dari pohon tersebut dipotong dan kemudian batang-batang kayunya dibawa ke pabrik pengilingan. Di pabrik pengilingan kulit kayu akan dihilangkan dan batang-batang kayu tersebut dibawa ke mesin pemotong kayu (chipper) yang memotong batang-batang kayu tersebut menjadi potongan-potongan kecil yang disebut serpihan kayu (woodchips). Serpihan kayu tersebut kemudian disaring untuk menghilangkan kotoran dan benda-benda lainnya. Pada tahap ini mereka bisa diekspor dalam bentuk tersebut atau dirubah menjadi bubur kertas dengan bahan kimia dan panas. Bubur tersebut kemudian diputihkan dan kadar airnya akan dihilangkan. Akhirnya bubur kertas tersebut digulung untuk dibuat kertas kertas.

 

 

  1. Discussion text

 

Definition of Discussion Text

Text yang menyajikan 2 sudut pandang (point of view) pro dan contra.

 

General structure of Discussion Text

Issue : (Berisi pernyataan pembukaan yang menyajikan permasalahan yang akan didiskusikan/dibahas.)

Argument pro : berisi argument yang mendukung

Argument cons : berisi argument yang menentang.

Conclusion / recommendation : Kesimpulan atau saran.

 

Purpose of Discussion text

To present two points of view about…

To present arguments from differing points of view..

 

Language feature of Discussion text

Simple present

Ada kata : however, on the other hand

 

Example

Most people have account in facebook. It’s a communication tool to socialize with other people. However, facebok has advantages and disadvantages

Facebook allows the user to search for new and old friends. It makes easier to join groups having similar likes and dislikes. We can also share our feeling, invite someone, or give information to our friends.

On the other hand, facebook has some disadvantages. Some users use facebook to do criminal by any ways. Some cases such as trafficking, deception, and prostitution happened because acquaintances in facebook.

Despite the above mentioned advantages and disadvantages of facebook, there are many people who still join facebook everyday. I think it’s okay but I hope they use facebook in proper way.

 

 

  1. Review Text

 

Definition of Review Text

Text yang mereview/mengevaluasi/mengkritik sebuah karya, seperti music, film, buku, dsb.

 

Generic Structure of Review Text

– Orientation : background informasi.

– Evaluations : penilaian, opini, dan rekomendasi

– Interpretative Recount : ringkasan, yang meliputi tokoh dan alur cerita.

– Evaluative Summation : pujian dan kritikan.

 

Purpose of Review Text

To evaluate/review/critic…..

 

Language Features of Review Text

– Present tense.
– Sering menggunakan long clause (klausa panjang) dan kompleks.

 

Example of Review Text

Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix

I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart.

I have to say that of all the books, however, this one was not my favorite.

When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.

Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works you feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly moved by the last page. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we’re reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example – housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, and I’m not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

A few other changes in this book – the “real” world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the “angry teen” overnight. The “real” story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.

 

Oke. Demikianlah penjelasan saya mengenai teks-teks bahasa inggris lengkap. Semoga bermanfaat buat sobat semuanya. Jangan lupa belajar yang rajin ya, di sekolah atau di rumah. Semoga semua cita-cita terwujud. Amin..

 

Terima kasih atas kunjungannya. Semoga dengan berkunjung di website British Course ini sobat bisa makin cinta bahasa inggris, dan nilai bahasa inggris sobat semakin memuaskan. Dan semoga kita bisa belajar bahasa inggris bareng dan saling mengenal. Komentar, saran dan kritik dari sobat kami harapkan demi kemajuan website ini. Thanks..
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