Penjelasan 16 Tenses Lengkap Beserta Contoh Kalimat

Tenses adalah bentuk kata kerja yang perubahanya tergantung pada waktu dan sifat kejadian. Semua kalimat dalam bahasa inggris tidak lepas dari tenses karena semua kalimat pasti ada hubungannya dengan tenses.

Tensis yang perlu dikuasai ada 5 yaitu, Simple Present Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Present Perfect Tense, Simple Past Tense, Simple Future Tense. Dengan menguasai kelima tensis ini saya yakin sobat sudah bisa cas cis cus menggunakan bahasa inggris.

Oke, langsung saja kita pelajari tensis yang pertama.

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + Verb-I {s/es} + ..
{-} Subject + do/does + not + Verb-I +..
{?} Do/Does + Subject + Verb-I +..

Contoh : {+}He speaks English everyday
{-} He does not speak English everyday
{?} Does he speak English Everyday?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang diulang-ulang/kebiasaan sehari-hari {habitual action}

Contoh :
I usually go to school by motorcycle
The students always study English every night
She gets up at 4 o’clock every morning

Untuk menyatakan fakta/kebenaran umum

Contoh :
The sun sets in the west
I have some smart students
A week has seven days

Untuk menyatakan opini

Contoh :
She wears beautiful dress
They sing beautifully in the stage
Keterangan Waktu :

Adverb of frequency
Always
Usually
Generally
Ever {?}
Sometimes
Occasionally
Seldom
Never
Adverb of quantity
Once… = sekali…
Once a day = sekali sehari
Once a week = sekali seminggu
Every…
Today
Etc

Skema :

Do I
You
We
They
Speak English Yes You
I
We
They
Speak English
Does He
She
Ani
Ahmad
He
She
Ani
Ahmad
Speaks English

Catatan

Dalam Simple Present Tense untuk subjek orang ketiga tunggal {he, she, it, Ali} kata kerjanya {verb} ditambah s/es pada kalimat positif.

Ketentuan penambahan s/es dalam kata kerja sebagai berikut :

Jika kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf desis {ch, c, ss, sh, x, z} atau ‘o’
Catch – catches
Go – goes
Discuss – discusses

Apabila kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf ‘y’ dan didahului oleh huruf mati maka ‘y’ berubah menjadi ‘i’ baru ditambah ‘es’
Carry – carries
Cry – cries
Fly – flies

Jika kata kerja berakhiran ‘y’ tapi didahului huruf hidup langsung ditambah ‘s’
Buy – buys
Play – plays

Untuk membuat kalimat negative dengan menambah ‘not’ setelah ‘do’ atau ‘does’.
Do dipakai untuk subjek : I, You, We, They.
Does dipakai untuk subjek : He, She, It, Arman

Untuk membuat kalimat interrogative {?} dengan menempatkan ‘do’ atau ‘does’ sebelum subjek.
Do you go to school everyday?
Does she visit you once a month?

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola Kalimat
{+} Subject + {am/is/are} + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + {am/is/are} + not + Verb-ing + Object
{?} {Am/is/are} + Subject + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} I am opening the door
{-} I am not opening the door
{?} Am I opening the door?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung saat berbicara diwaktu sekarang.
They are playing football
She is writing a letter
He is doing his work

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang bersifat sementara.
She is cooking rice now but she will write soon
We are waiting for the bus.
Jack is looking for a job.

Keterangan waktu :
Now = sekarang
Still = masih
Look = lihat
At present = sekarang ini
At this moment = pada saat ini
Right now = sekarang ini

Skema :

Is He
She
Ani
Opening the door? Yes He
She
Ani
Is Opening the door
Am I You Are
Are You
We
They
I Am
They
We
are

Catatan :

To be dalam Present Continuous Tense adalah : am, is, are.
Am untuk subjek : ‘I’
Is untuk subjek : ‘He, She, It’
Are untuk subjek : ‘You, We, They’

Untuk membuat kalimat negative dengan menambahkan ‘not’ pada to be nya.
Contoh = I am not speaking English
= We are not singing a song

Ketentuan penambahan Verb-ing sebagai berikut :

Secara umum verb-ing langsung ditambah ‘ing’
Break – breaking
Learn – learning
Sing – singing

Verb-I yang bersuku kata satu diakhiri dengan huruf mati maka huruf mati maka huruf mati tersebut digandakan baru ditambah ‘ing’
Bid – bidding
Sit – sitting
Cut – cutting

Verb-I yang bersuku kata dua, berakhiran dengan ‘l’ dan didahului huruf hidup ditambah ‘ing’
Travel – traveling
Revel – reveling
Sail – sailing

Verb-I yang berakhiran ‘e’ dan didahului oleh konsonan maka huruf ‘e’ dihilangkan.
Rise – rising
Bite – biting
Come – coming

Jika vokal ‘e’ didahului oleh dua vokal maka langsung ditambah ‘ing’
Agree – agreeing
Free – freeing

Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘e’ didahului oleh ‘i’ maka ‘ie’ diganti dengan ‘y’ baru ditambah ‘ing’
Die – dying
Lie – lying

Beberapa kata kerja yang tanpa dirubah menjadi Verb-ing sudah mengandung makna, sedang {ing} dengan sendirinya diantaranya ialah :

– Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan Panca Indra
I see you
You smell something burning

– Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan milik
I have a new car
Do you possess a pen?

– Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan pendapat
What do you think about?
I understand your problem.

– Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan sikap
We like English very much
I want you to be my friend

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + have/has + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + have/has + not + Verb-III + Object
{?} Have/has + Subject + Verb-III + Object

Contoh : {+} She has driven a car
{-} She has not driven a car
{?} Has she driven a car?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan dalam waktu yang tidak tentu dimasa lampau dan biasanya membawa akibat dimasa sekarang.

Contoh :
I have finished my work and now I want to go to the theater.
She has already gone to Bali so she will go to Jakarta.

Keterangan waktu :
For
Already
Since
Ever {?}
Just
Recently

Skema :

Have I
You
We
They
Swept the floor? Yes You
I
We
They
Have Swept the floor
Has He
She
Ali
Ani
He
She
Ali
Ani
Has

Catatan :

– Kata kerja bantu dalam Present Perfect Tense ialah :
Have dipakai untuk subjek : I/You/We/They
Has dipakai untuk subjek : He/She/It/Ahmad

– Pembentukan kalimat negatif, menambah ‘not’ setelah ‘have/has’.
She has not spoken English
They have not written a letter

– Untuk menanyakan waktu dalam tense ini sering menggunakan How long
How long have you studied English?
How long has she written a letter?

– Kata kerja yang dipakai adalah verb-III {past participle}. Dalam perubahan bentuk verb ada yang beraturan dan ada yang tidak.
Contoh yang beraturan {regular verb}
Study – studied – studied
Close – closed – closed

Contoh yang tidak beraturan {irregular verb}
Go – went – gone
Speak – spoke – spoken

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola Kalimat
{+} Subject + have/has + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + have/has + not + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Have/has + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} Jack has been watching television
{-} Jack has not been watching television
{?} Has Jack been watching television?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang.
We have been studying English at EECC since last week until now
He has been waiting for you for two hours.

Keterangan Waktu :
For : selama
Since : sejak
How long : berapa lama?

Skema

Have I
You
We
They
Been resting? Yes You
I
We
They
Have Been resting
Has He
She
It
He
She
It
Has

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + Verb-II + Object
{-} Subject + did + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Did + Subject + Verb-I + Object

Contoh :
{+} He read holy Qur’an yesterday
{-} He did not read holy Qur’an yesterday
{?} Did he read holy Qur’an yesterday?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
She bought a book yesterday
Ahmad went to London

Keterangan waktu :
Yesterday
Last ..
Two day ago
Just now

Skema :

Did I
You
We
They
He
She
It
write a letter? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
It
wrote a letter

Catatan

– Untuk kalimat negative dan interrogative menggunakan kata kerja bantu ‘did’ untuk semua subjek.

– Dalam kalimat negative dan interrogative kembali ke verb-I {infinitive}

– Perubahan verb-I menjadi verb-II sebagai berikut :
Regular Verb
Ask – asked
Close – closed

Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘y’ didahului vokal, maka verb-II dibentuk dengan menambah ‘ed’ saja.
Obey – obeyed
Play – played

– Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘y’ didahului konsonan, maka verb-II dibentuk dengan mengubah ‘y’ menjadi ‘i’ kemudian ditambah ‘ed’.
Study – studied
Carry – carried

– Jika verb-I berakhiran konsonan yang didahului vokal tapi terdiri dari satu suku kata maka dibentuk dengan menggandakan konsonan tersebut.
Beg – begged
Clap – clapped

Irregular Verb {kata tak beraturan}
Untuk perubahan irregular verb ini tidak ada rumus sehingga harus dihafalkan.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + was/were + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + was/were + not + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Was/Were + Subject + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} Dedy was climbing a mountain
{-} Dedy was not climbing a mountain
{?} Was Dedy climbing a mountain?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung ketika peristiwa yang lain terjadi di waktu yang lampau.
He was cleaning the cupboard when I visited him yesterday.
Anton was writing a letter at 8 o’clock last night.
When I was reading a book, you came to my house.
Interrupt -> simple past

My mother was cooking in the kitchen, while my father was watching tv.

Keterangan Waktu :
…. when = ketika
..o’clock yesterday = pada pukul…kemarin
At morning yesterday = sepanjang pagi kemarin

Skema :

Was I
He
She
It
reading a magazine? Yes you Were reading a magazine
He
She
It
Was
Were You
They
We
I Was
They
We
Were

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + had + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + had + not + Verb-III + Object
{?} Had + Subject + Verb-III + Object

Contoh : {+} They had gone to Mecca
{-} They had not gone to Mecca
{?} Had they gone to Mecca

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika/sebelum peristiwa yang lain terjadi di waktu lampau.
He had gone to Jakarta when I visited him last week
After she had locked the door she went to bed room.

Keterangan waktu :
After .. : setelah ..
… before : … sebelum
… when : … ketika

Skema :

Had I
You
We
They
He
She
It
planted onion? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
It
had planted onion

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + had + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + had + not + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Had + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} She had been cutting flower
{-} She had not been cutting flower
{?} Had she been cutting flower?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu lampau.
She had been reading a magazine for an hour when I visited her last week.

Keterangan waktu :
for … when : selama … ketika
by last … : … sebelum
…. by yesterday : … ketika

Skema :

Had I
You
We
They
He
She
It
Been studying English at EECC? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
It
had been studying English at EECC

THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + will/shall + Verb-I + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + Verb-I + Object

Contoh : {+} I shall meet you
{-} I shall not meet you
{?} Shall I meet you?

Penggunaan :

– Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang terjadi di masa yang akan datang.
They will move to America next year.
I shall do it for you next time.

– Untuk membuat kalimat permohonan yang sopan.
Will you help me, please?
Will you accompany her?

– Untuk membuat kalimat bersyarat {Conditional Sentence Tipe-I}
I will visit you if your parents allow me
You will pass the exam if you study hard

Keterangan Waktu
Tomorrow : besok
Next … : … yang akan datang
Later : kemudian

Skema

Shall I
We
solve a problem? Yes You Will solve a problem
We Shall
Will You
They
He
She
I Shall
They
He
She
Will

Catatan :

– Kata kerja bantu dalam Simple Future Tense ialah ‘will’ dan ‘shall’
– To be going to {akan} digunakan untuk menyatakan niat pribadi, kalau will/shall untuk pernyataan umum.

Bandingkan kalimat dibawah ini :
If Arif succeeds in exam, his father will buy him a motorcycle.
Arif’s father is going to buy him a motorcycle.

Dalam kalimat pertama tergantung sukses tidaknya Arif dalam ujian, sedang dalam kalimat kedua, ayah Arif memang mempunyai niat pribadi untuk membelikan sebuah sepeda motor tanpa harus menunggu lulus tidaknya.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + will/shall + be + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + be + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} She will be closing the door
{-} She will not be closing the door
{?} Will she be closing the door?

Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung dalam waktu tertentu dimasa yang akan datang.
Ahmad will be meeting us at 7 o’clock AM tomorrow
My uncle will be coming by this time next time next week.

Keterangan waktu :
At the same time tomorrow
At … o’clock tonight
At this time next month

Skema :

Will I
You
We
They
He
She
be studying English? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
Will be studying English.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + will/shall + have + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + have + Verb-III + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + have + Verb-III + Object

Contoh : {+}They will have done homework
{-} They will not have done homework
{?} Will they have done homework?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sudah selesai dilakukan dimasa mendatang.
He will have stayed at home by this time tomorrow.
Keterangan waktu :
By {7 o’clock tomorrow} : menjelang pukul 7 besok
In a week : dalam satu minggu
…. when + Simple Present
… before + Simple Present

Skema :

Will I
You
We
They
He
She
Have achieved that science? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
Will have achieved that science

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + will/shall + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} She will have been cooking rice
{-} She will not have been cooking rice
{?} Will she have been cooking rice?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah sedang berlangsung beberapa lama di waktu yang akan datang.
He will have been sleeping for an hour by 3 o’clock.
Liliek will have been teaching here for 6 years by next Desember.

Keterangan Waktu :

Keterangan waktu Future Perfect Continuous Tense merupakan gabungan dari Future Perfect Tense dengan Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
by next week + for …
by … o’clock + for …

Skema :

Will I
You
We
They
He
She
have been searching that incident? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
will have been searching that incident.

THE SIMPLE PAST FUTURE TENSE

Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + Verb-I + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + Verb-I + Object

Contoh : {+}We would invite you last week
{-} We would not invite you last week
{?} Would we invite you last week?

Penggunaan :

– Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan dilakukan dimasa lampau tapi tidak terjadi.
He would come here yesterday, unfortunately he was sick.

– Untuk menyatakan suatu tawaran yang lebih sopan.
Would you like to help me?

– Untuk membuat Conditional Sentence tipe-II {yaitu mengandaikan sesuatu yang kemungkinannya sulit terlaksana karena berlawanan dengan kenyataan sekarang}
You would pass the exam if you studied hard.
{kenyataannya sekarang kamu tidak belajar}

Keterangan waktu :

Keterangan waktu sama dengan Simple Past Tense
The following … {day, week, month, etc}

Skema :

Would I
You
We
They
He
She
go to London? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
would go to London

Catatan :

Would/should adalah bentuk past dari will/shall
Would/should dapat diartikan seharusnya/sudikah/rencananya.

Dengan pengertian diatas maka should bisa dipakai untuk semua subject.

THE PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + be + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + be + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} He would be playing football
{-} He would not be playing football
{?} Would he be playing football?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
He would be singing a pop song at 8 o’clock pm last night.
Father would be reading a newspaper

Keterangan Waktu :
At … o’clock yesterday = pada pukul…kemarin
On Wednesday last week = pada hari rabu minggu lalu
By this time yesterday = menjelang saat seperti ini kemarin

Skema :

Would I
You
We
They
He
She
be grinding corn? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
would be grinding corn

THE PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + have + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + have + Verb-III + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + have + Verb-III + Object

Contoh : {+} Titus would have bought a car
{-} Titus would not have bought a car
{?} Would Titus have bought a car?

Penggunaan :

– Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah selesai dilakukan dimasa lalu.
Ahmad would have done his homework before he went to school yesterday.

– Untuk menyatakan suatu pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terlaksana karena syaratnya sudah tidak terpenuhi.
If you had gone to Jakarta last year, you would have met Nike Ardila.

Keterangan waktu :
Past Future Perfect Tense if Past Perfect Tense

Skema :

Would I
You
We
They
He
She
have given a book? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
would have given a book

THE PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh :
{+} They would have been doing government examination
{-} They would not have been doing government examination
{?} Would they have been doing government examination?

Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu dimasa lampau.
He would have been studying here for 5 hours by yesterday afternoon.

Keterangan waktu :
for … + by … yesterday/last…

Skema :

Would I
You
We
They
He
She
Amir
have been writing a story? Yes You
I
We
They
He
She
Amir
would have been writing a story

Demikian penjelasan 16 tenses yang bisa disajikan oleh British Course kali ini. Semoga bermanfaat

Refference:
– Buku pegangan kursus Effective English Conversation Course (EECC)

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