In this post I want to discuss about one type of text that must be understood by English learner in Indonesia, that is procedure text. Have you learnt this type of text in your school? I am sure most of students that like English lesson have been familiar with this kind of text, right?
Before I explain about this text, I want to ask you, Do you like cooking? Cooking is something that usually we do every day, especially for woman. Cooking can be enjoyable activity if we like it but there are some people lazy to cook or even afraid because they cannot make delicious food. To help them, people who cannot cook can see recipes. Recipes are very helpful. When we want to make delicious food, we need recipe because there are steps that can lead us to do it. Recipe is an example of procedure text.
Another example is book instruction. When you buy a new TV or a new phone cell, there must be a book instruction in the box. Book instruction is also one of the examples of procedure text. When you want to download something from the internet, there are steps before we do that. Those steps are also procedure text. Then, what is procedure text actually?
Procedure text is a text that explains or helps us how to make or use something. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of steps. Communicative purpose of this text is to describe how something is made through a sequence of actions or steps.
There are three generic structures in procedure text. The first is goals or purposes. The second is materials or tools. The third and the last are steps or methods. To know the text that we read is procedure or not is so simple. You can read the title of it. If the title is started with ‘how to make…’ or ‘how to use…’ it can be certainly defined that the text is procedure text.
Definition of Procedure Text
There are three definition about procedure text : (1)Texts that explain how something works or how to use instruction / operation manuals e.g. how to use the video, the computer, the tape recorder, the photocopier, the fax. (2) Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules. (3) Texts that deal with human behavior, e.g how to live happily, how to succeed
Generic Structure of Procedure Text
# Goal : (e.g : How to make spaghetti)
# Material or Ingredient : (e.g : the material to cook omelette are egg, onion, vegetable oil, etc. )
# Step : (e.g : first, wash the tomatoes, onion, …., second cut the onions becomes slice. . . )
Purpose of Procedure Text
– To explain/tell (the reader) how to make/operate/do something through a sequence of actions or steps.
– To explain steps/instruction to make/operate/do something
Language Feature of Procedure Text
– Use adverbial of sequence / Using temporal conjunction (e.g: first, second, third, the last)
– Use command / imperative sentence (e.g : put the noodles on the . . ., cut the onion. . ., wash the tomatoes. . . )
– Using adverbials (Adverbs) to express detail the time, place, manner accurate, for example, for five minutes, 2 hours, etc.
– Using action verbs, e.g : make, take, boil, cook
– Using Simple Present Tense
Examples of Procedure Text
HOW TO MAKE A CUP Of COFFEE
MATERIALS AND INGEDIENTS :
spoons of sugar
spoon of coffee powder
– a cup
1. Prepare two spoons of sugar, a cup, hot water, one spoon of coffee powder, a spoon.
2. Put one spoon of coffee powder into the cup.
3. Pour some hot water into the cup.
4. Add 2 spoons of sugar into a cup of coffee
5. Stir it well and the hot coffee is ready to drink
HOW TO MAKE NASI UDUK
– 2 cups of rice
– 2 cups of coconut milk
– 1 tsp salt
– 1 pandan leaf
– 1 jeruk purut leaf
– 1 salam leaf
– 1 lemon grass
– big pot
– rice paddle
COOKING METHOD :
1. Cook the coconut milk with all the other ingredients except
2. Meanwhile, wash the rice in another big pot.
3. When the coconut milk comes to a boil, pour it in the pot filled with rice and stir frequently until all the liquid is absorbed.
4. Move the rice to a steamer until it is cooked.
5. Take out the leaves before serving.
1. Serve hot on a platter with shredded omelet and a mixture of fried peanuts and fried onions.
2. Garnish the platter with sliced cucumber, tomato and green leaves. This recipe makes 4 servings.
How To Make Fruit Ice
First, Cut the fruit round or dice.
Then, Scratching the flesh of a melon.
Then, Boil sugar with water until cooked for about 30 minutes.
Next, Put in serving glasses that have been cut round pieces or dice.
Then, to taste Pour the sugar water, put ice cubes and put milk on ice fruit.
Last, put the decorations on the glass with a piece of strawberry on it.
How To Make Egg and Lemon Soup
3 pints chicken stock
Juice of 2 Lemons
3 oz rice
salt and pepper
4 eggs, well beaten
Put stock into a pan and heat until boiling.
Add rice and cook on low heat for fifteen minutes.
Mix together egg and lemon juice.
Add three tablespoons of stock to the mixture and stir.
Stir this mixture into the remaining stock in pan.
Add a little of salt and pepper.
Cook gently for three minutes.
Related Articles : Narrative Text ; Definition, Generic Structures, Purposes, Language Features
Oke. I think that’s all my explanation about Procedure text. I hope it will be useful for us. I hope you are never bored to visit this site. Don’t forget to visit this site if you need English reference in your study. See you next time..
Rudi Hartono, Genre of Texts, (Semarang: English Department Faculty of Language and Art Semarang State University, 2005)
Text Genre, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing, Peter Knapp & Megan Watkins, New South Wales Press, Ltd : Australia
Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, Text Type in English 1-2, Australia: MacMillanEducation, 2003.