Home » Materi Grammar » Penjelasan 16 Tenses Lengkap Beserta Contoh Kalimat

Penjelasan 16 Tenses Lengkap Beserta Contoh Kalimat

Tenses adalah bentuk kata kerja yang perubahanya tergantung pada waktu dan sifat kejadian. Semua kalimat dalam bahasa inggris tidak lepas dari tenses karena semua kalimat pasti ada hubungannya dengan tenses.

 

Tensis yang perlu dikuasai ada 5 yaitu, Simple Present Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Present Perfect Tense, Simple Past Tense, Simple Future Tense. Dengan menguasai kelima tensis ini saya yakin sobat sudah bisa cas cis cus menggunakan bahasa inggris.

 

Oke, langsung saja kita pelajari tensis yang pertama.

 

  1. Simple Present Tense

 

  1. Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + Verb-I {s/es} + ..
{-} Subject + do/does + not + Verb-I  +..
{?} Do/Does + Subject + Verb-I +..

Contoh :    {+}He speaks English everyday

{-} He does not speak English everyday

{?} Does he speak English Everyday?

  1. Penggunaan
  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang diulang-ulang/kebiasaan sehari-hari {habitual action}

Contoh :

I usually go to school by motorcycle

The students always study English every night

She gets up at 4 o’clock every morning

  1. Untuk menyatakan fakta/kebenaran umum

Contoh :

The sun sets in the west

I have some smart students

A week has seven days

  1. Untuk menyatakan opini

Contoh :

She wears beautiful dress

They sing beautifully in the stage

  1. Keterangan Waktu :
  1. Adverb of frequency

 

  • Always
  • Usually
  • Generally
  • Ever {?}
  • Sometimes
  • Occasionally
  • Seldom
  • Never
  1. Adverb of quantity
    • Once… = sekali…
    • Once a day = sekali sehari
    • Once a week             = sekali seminggu
  2. Every…
  3. Today
  4. Etc
  5. Skema :
Do I

You

We

They

Speak English Yes You

I

We

They

Speak English
Does He

She

Ani

Ahmad

He

She

Ani

Ahmad

Speaks English

Catatan

  1. Dalam Simple Present Tense untuk subjek orang ketiga tunggal {he, she, it, Ali} kata kerjanya {verb} ditambah s/es pada kalimat positif.
  2. Ketentuan penambahan s/es dalam kata kerja sebagai berikut :
  1. Jika kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf desis {ch, c, ss, sh, x, z} atau ‘o’

Catch         – catches

Go             – goes

Discuss      – discusses

  1. Apabila kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf ‘y’ dan didahului oleh huruf mati maka ‘y’ berubah menjadi ‘i’ baru ditambah ‘es

Carry         – carries

Cry            – cries

Fly             – flies

  1. Jika kata kerja berakhiran ‘y’ tapi didahului huruf hidup langsung ditambah ‘s’

Buy                       – buys

Play                       – plays

  1. Untuk membuat kalimat negative dengan menambah ‘not’ setelah ‘do’ atau ‘does’.

Do dipakai untuk subjek : I, You, We, They.

Does dipakai untuk subjek : He, She, It, Arman

  1. Untuk membuat kalimat interrogative {?} dengan menempatkan ‘do’ atau ‘does’ sebelum subjek.

Do you go to school everyday?

Does she visit you once a month?

 

 

  1. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola Kalimat
{+} Subject + {am/is/are} + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + {am/is/are} + not + Verb-ing + Object
{?} {Am/is/are} + Subject + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh : {+} I am opening the door

{-} I am not opening the door

{?} Am I opening the door?

  1. Penggunaan
  1. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung saat berbicara diwaktu sekarang.
  • They are playing football
  • She is writing a letter
  • He is doing his work
  1. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang bersifat sementara.
  • She is cooking rice now but she will write soon
  • We are waiting for the bus.
  • Jack is looking for a job.
  1. Keterangan waktu :

Now                      = sekarang

Still                        = masih

Look                      = lihat

At present             = sekarang ini

At this moment     = pada saat ini

Right now             = sekarang ini

  1. Skema :
Is He

She

Ani

Opening the door? Yes He

She

Ani

Is Opening the door
Am I You Are
Are You

We

They

I Am
They

We

are

Catatan :

  1. To be dalam Present Continuous Tense adalah : am, is, are.

Am untuk subjek        : ‘I’

Is untuk subjek            : ‘He, She, It’

Are untuk subjek        : ‘You, We, They’

  1. Untuk membuat kalimat negative dengan menambahkan ‘not’ pada to be nya.

Contoh = I am not speaking English

= We are not singing a song

  1. Ketentuan penambahan Verb-ing sebagai berikut :
    1. Secara umum verb-ing langsung ditambah ‘ing’

Break                     – breaking

Learn                     – learning

Sing                       – singing

  1. Verb-I yang bersuku kata satu diakhiri dengan huruf mati maka huruf mati maka huruf mati tersebut digandakan baru ditambah ‘ing’

Bid                        – bidding

Sit              – sitting

Cut                        – cutting

  1. Verb-I yang bersuku kata dua, berakhiran dengan ‘l’ dan didahului huruf hidup ditambah ‘ing’

Travel                    – traveling

Revel                     – reveling

Sail                        – sailing

  1. Verb-I yang berakhiran ‘e’ dan didahului oleh konsonan maka huruf ‘e’ dihilangkan.

Rise                       – rising

Bite                       – biting

Come                     – coming

  1. Jika vokal ‘e’ didahului oleh dua vokal maka langsung ditambah ‘ing’

Agree                    – agreeing

Free                       – freeing

  1. Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘e’ didahului oleh ‘i’ maka ‘ie’ diganti dengan ‘y’ baru ditambah ‘ing’

Die                        – dying

Lie             – lying

  1. Beberapa kata kerja yang tanpa dirubah menjadi Verb-ing sudah mengandung makna, sedang {ing} dengan sendirinya diantaranya ialah :
  2. Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan Panca Indra
    • I see you
    • You smell something burning
  3. Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan milik
    • I have a new car
    • Do you possess a pen?
  4. Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan pendapat
    • What do you think about?
    • I understand your problem.
  5. Kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan sikap
    • We like English very much
    • I want you to be my friend

 

  1. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + have/has + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + have/has + not + Verb-III + Object
{?} Have/has + Subject + Verb-III + Object

Contoh :    {+} She has driven a car

{-} She has not driven a car

{?} Has she driven a car?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan dalam waktu yang tidak tentu dimasa lampau dan biasanya membawa akibat dimasa sekarang.

Contoh :

  • I have finished my work and now I want to go to the theater.
  • She has already gone to Bali so she will go to Jakarta.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
  • For
  • Already
  • Since
  • Ever {?}
  • Just
  • Recently

 

  1. Skema :
Have I

You

We

They

Swept the floor? Yes You

I

We

They

Have Swept the floor
Has He

She

Ali

Ani

He

She

Ali

Ani

Has

 

Catatan :

  1. Kata kerja bantu dalam Present Perfect Tense ialah :
    • Have dipakai untuk subjek : I/You/We/They
    • Has dipakai untuk subjek : He/She/It/Ahmad
  2. Pembentukan kalimat negatif, menambah ‘not’ setelah ‘have/has’.
    • She has not spoken English
    • They have not written a letter
  3. Untuk menanyakan waktu dalam tense ini sering menggunakan How long
    • How long have you studied English?
    • How long has she written a letter?
  4. Kata kerja yang dipakai adalah verb-III {past participle}. Dalam perubahan bentuk verb ada yang beraturan dan ada yang tidak.

Contoh yang beraturan {regular verb}

  • Study – studied          – studied
  • Close – closed            – closed

Contoh yang tidak beraturan {irregular verb}

  • Go – went              – gone
  • Speak – spoke             – spoken

 

 

  1. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
  2. Pola Kalimat
{+} Subject + have/has + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + have/has + not + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Have/has + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh : {+} Jack has been watching television

{-} Jack has not been watching television

{?} Has Jack been watching television?

 

  1. Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang.

  • We have been studying English at EECC since last week until now
  • He has been waiting for you for two hours.

 

  1. Keterangan Waktu :
    • For : selama
    • Since : sejak
    • How long : berapa lama?

 

 

  1. Skema
Have I

You

We

They

Been resting? Yes You

I

We

They

Have Been resting
Has He

She

It

He

She

It

Has

 

 

  1. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + Verb-II + Object
{-} Subject + did + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Did + Subject + Verb-I + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} He read holy Qur’an yesterday

{-} He did not read holy Qur’an yesterday

{?} Did he read holy Qur’an yesterday?

 

  1. Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.

  • She bought a book yesterday
  • Ahmad went to London

 

  1. Keterangan waktu
    • Yesterday
    • Las…
    • Two day ago
    • Just now

 

  1. Skema :
Did I

You

We

They

He

She

It

write a letter? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

It

wrote a letter

 

Catatan

  1. Untuk kalimat negative dan interrogative menggunakan kata kerja bantu ‘did’ untuk semua subjek.
  2. Dalam kalimat negative dan interrogative kembali ke verb-I {infinitive}
  3. Perubahan verb-I menjadi verb-II sebagai berikut :
    1. Regular Verb

Ask                        – asked

Close                     – closed

  • Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘y’ didahului vokal, maka verb-II dibentuk dengan menambah ‘ed’ saja.

Obey                        – obeyed

Play              – played

  • Jika verb-I berakhiran ‘y’ didahului konsonan, maka verb-II dibentuk dengan mengubah ‘y’ menjadi ‘i’ kemudian ditambah ‘ed’.

Study                       – studied

Carry                        – carried

  • Jika verb-I berakhiran konsonan yang didahului vokal tapi terdiri dari satu suku kata maka dibentuk dengan menggandakan konsonan tersebut.

Beg               – begged

Clap              – clapped

 

  1. Irregular Verb {kata tak beraturan}

Untuk perubahan irregular verb ini tidak ada rumus sehingga harus dihafalkan.

 

 

  1. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + was/were + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + was/were + not + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Was/Were + Subject + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} Dedy was climbing a mountain

{-} Dedy was not climbing a mountain

{?} Was Dedy climbing a mountain?

 

  1. Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung ketika peristiwa yang lain terjadi di waktu yang lampau.

  • He was cleaning the cupboard when I visited him yesterday.
  • Anton was writing a letter at 8 o’clock last night.
  • When I was reading a book, you came to my house.

Interrupt -> simple past

  • My mother was cooking in the kitchen, while my father was watching tv.

 

  1. Keterangan Waktu :
    • ….when = ketika
    • ..o’clock yesterday = pada pukul…kemarin
    • At morning yesterday = sepanjang pagi kemarin

 

  1. Skema :
Was I

He

She

It

reading a magazine? Yes you Were reading a magazine
He

She

It

Was
Were You

They

We

I Was
They

We

Were

 

 

  1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + had + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + had + not + Verb-III + Object
{?} Had + Subject + Verb-III + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} They had gone to Mecca

{-} They had not gone to Mecca

{?} Had they gone to Mecca

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika/sebelum peristiwa yang lain terjadi di waktu lampau.

  • He had gone to Jakarta when I visited him last week
  • After she had locked the door she went to bed room.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • After… : setelah…
    • …before : …sebelum
    • …when : …ketika

 

  1. Skema :
Had I

You

We

They

He

She

It

planted onion? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

It

had planted onion

 

 

  1. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + had + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + had + not + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Had + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} She had been cutting flower

{-} She had not been cutting flower

{?} Had she been cutting flower?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu lampau.

  • She had been reading a magazine for an hour when I visited her last week.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • for…when : selama…ketika
    • by last… : …sebelum
    • …by yesterday : …ketika

 

  1. Skema :
Had I

You

We

They

He

She

It

Been studying English at EECC? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

It

had been studying English at EECC

 

 

  1. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + will/shall + Verb-I + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + Verb-I + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} I shall meet you

{-} I shall not meet you

{?} Shall I meet you?

 

  1. Penggunaan :
  1. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang terjadi di masa yang akan datang.
    • They will move to America next year.
    • I shall do it for you next time.
  2. Untuk membuat kalimat permohonan yang sopan.
    • Will you help me, please?
    • Will you accompany her?
  3. Untuk membuat kalimat bersyarat {Conditional Sentence Tipe-I}
    • I will visit you if your parents allow me
    • You will pass the exam if you study hard

 

  1. Keterangan Waktu
    • Tomorrow : besok
    • Next… : …yang akan datang
    • Later : kemudian

 

  1. Skema
Shall I

We

solve a problem? Yes You Will solve a problem
We Shall
Will You

They

He

She

I Shall
They

He

She

Will

 

Catatan :

  1. Kata kerja bantu dalam Simple Future Tense ialah ‘will’ dan ‘shall’
  2. To be going to {akan} digunakan untuk menyatakan niat pribadi, kalau will/shall untuk pernyataan umum.

Bandingkan kalimat dibawah ini :

  • If Arif succeeds in exam, his father will buy him a motorcycle.
  • Arif’s father is going to buy him a motorcycle.

 

Dalam kalimat pertama tergantung sukses tidaknya Arif dalam ujian, sedang dalam kalimat kedua, ayah Arif memang mempunyai niat pribadi untuk membelikan sebuah sepeda motor tanpa harus menunggu lulus tidaknya.

 

  1. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat
{+} Subject + will/shall + be + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + be + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Object

Contoh :    {+} She will be closing the door

{-} She will not be closing the door

{?} Will she be closing the door?

 

  1. Penggunaan

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung dalam waktu tertentu dimasa yang akan datang.

  • Ahmad will be meeting us at 7 o’clock AM tomorrow
  • My uncle will be coming by this time next time next week.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • At the same time tomorrow
    • At…o’clock tonight
    • At this time next month

 

  1. Skema :

 

Will I

You

We

They

He

She

be studying English? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

Will be studying English.

 

 

  1. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + will/shall + have + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + have + Verb-III + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + have + Verb-III + Object

 

Contoh :    {+}They will have done homework

{-} They will not have done homework

{?} Will they have done homework?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sudah selesai dilakukan dimasa mendatang.

  • He will have stayed at home by this time tomorrow.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • By {7 o’clock tomorrow} : menjelang pukul 7 besok
    • In a week : dalam satu minggu
    • …when + Simple Present
    • …before + Simple Present

 

  1. Skema :
Will I

You

We

They

He

She

Have achieved that science? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

Will have achieved that science

 

 

  1. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + will/shall + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + will/shall + not + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Will/shall + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} She will have been cooking rice

{-} She will not have been cooking rice

{?} Will she have been cooking rice?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah sedang berlangsung beberapa lama di waktu yang akan datang.

  • He will have been sleeping for an hour by 3 o’clock.
  • Liliek will have been teaching here for 6 years by next Desember.

 

  1. Keterangan Waktu :

Keterangan waktu Future Perfect Continuous Tense merupakan gabungan dari Future Perfect Tense dengan Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

  • by next week + for…
  • by…o’clock + for…

 

  1. Skema :
 

Will

 

I

You

We

They

He

She

have been searching that incident? Yes

 

You

I

We

They

He

She

will have been searching that incident.

 

 

  1. THE SIMPLE PAST FUTURE TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + Verb-I + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + Verb-I + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + Verb-I + Object

 

Contoh :    {+}We would invite you last week

{-} We would not invite you last week

{?} Would we invite you last week?

 

  1. Penggunaan :
  1. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan dilakukan dimasa lampau tapi tidak terjadi.
    • He would come here yesterday, unfortunately he was sick.
  2. Untuk menyatakan suatu tawaran yang lebih sopan.
    • Would you like to help me?
  3. Untuk membuat Conditional Sentence tipe-II {yaitu mengandaikan sesuatu yang kemungkinannya sulit terlaksana karena berlawanan dengan kenyataan sekarang}
    • You would pass the exam if you studied hard.

{kenyataannya sekarang kamu tidak belajar}

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :

Keterangan waktu sama dengan Simple Past Tense

  • The following…{day, week, month, etc}

 

  1. Skema :
Would I

You

We

They

He

She

go to London? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

would go to London

 

Catatan :

  • Would/should adalah bentuk past dari will/shall
  • Would/should dapat diartikan seharusnya/sudikah/rencananya.
  • Dengan pengertian diatas maka should bisa dipakai untuk semua subject.

 

  1. THE PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + be + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + be + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} He would be playing football

{-} He would not be playing football

{?} Would he be playing football?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.

  • He would be singing a pop song at 8 o’clock pm last night.
  • Father would be reading a newspaper

 

  1. Keterangan Waktu :
    • At…o’clock yesterday = pada pukul…kemarin
    • On Wednesday last week = pada hari rabu minggu lalu
    • By this time yesterday = menjelang saat seperti ini kemarin

 

  1. Skema :
Would I

You

We

They

He

She

be grinding corn? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

would be grinding corn

 

 

  1. THE PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

 

  1. Pola Kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + have + Verb-III + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + have + Verb-III + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + have + Verb-III + Object

 

Contoh :    {+} Titus would have bought a car

{-} Titus would not have bought a car

{?} Would Titus have bought a car?

 

  1. Penggunaan :
  1. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah selesai dilakukan dimasa lalu.
  • Ahmad would have done his homework before he went to school yesterday.
  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terlaksana karena syaratnya sudah tidak terpenuhi.
  • If you had gone to Jakarta last year, you would have met Nike Ardila.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • Past Future Perfect Tense if Past Perfect Tense

 

  1. Skema :
Would I

You

We

They

He

She

have given a book? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

would have given a book

 

 

  1. THE PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

  1. Pola kalimat :
{+} Subject + would/should + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{-} Subject + would/should + not + have + been + Verb-ing + Object
{?} Would/should + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Object

 

Contoh :

{+} They would have been doing government examination

{-} They would not have been doing government examination

{?} Would they have been doing government examination?

 

  1. Penggunaan :

Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu dimasa lampau.

  • He would have been studying here for 5 hours by yesterday afternoon.

 

  1. Keterangan waktu :
    • for…+ by…yesterday/last…

 

  1. Skema :
Would I

You

We

They

He

She

Amir

have been writing a story? Yes You

I

We

They

He

She

Amir

would have been writing a story

 

 

Terima kasih atas kunjungannya. Semoga dengan berkunjung di website British Course ini sobat bisa makin cinta bahasa inggris, dan nilai bahasa inggris sobat semakin memuaskan. Dan semoga kita bisa belajar bahasa inggris bareng dan saling mengenal. Komentar, saran dan kritik dari sobat kami harapkan demi kemajuan website ini. Thanks..
Posted in Materi Grammar

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *