BRITISH Course – I’m sure my friend is familiar with the word Explanation. Because in the world of education and even in everyday life we usually meet explanation, maybe from our teacher, our parents, even from our friends. These explanations are one example of Explanation Text. For example, do you ever explain something to your friends? For example your friend asked, how is the process of rain, or how is the process of human creation?, etc. Then you explain to your friends about it. These explanations are one example of Explanation Text.
Well, for my friend who wants to learn about explanation text, my friend has come in the right place because on this occasion I will try to present explanations and examples of Explanation Text in detail and complete. I hope my explanation about Explanation Text below can be useful for all of the readers. Amen
Definition of Explanation Text
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
Generic Structure of Explanation Text
– General statement
General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
– Sequenced of explanation
Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
Purpose of Explanation Text
– Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific, and cultural phenomena.
– To explain how or why something happens.
According to Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1997: 82) says that the explanation text type is often used to tell how and why thing (phenomena) occur in nature.
Language Features of Explanation Text
In an explanation text, there are linguistic features as below :
– Using simple present tense
– Using abstract noun (no visible noun)
– Using Passive voice
– Using Action verbs
– Containing explanation of the process ..
Examples of Explanation Text
Example of Explanation Text about Natural Phenomenon
How does Rain Happen?
Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.
The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.
However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions
Example of Explanation Text about Process of Making Chocolate
How Chocolate is Made
Have we wondered how we get chocolate from? Well this time we will enter the amazing world of chocolate so we can understand exactly we are eating.
Chocolate starts a tree called cacao tree. This tree grows in equatorial regions, especially in place such as South America, Africa, and Indonesia. The cacao tree produces a fruit about the size of a small pine apple. In side the fruits are the tree’s seeds. They are also known as coco beans.
Next, the beans are fermented for about a week, dried in the sun. After that they are shipped to the chocolate maker. The chocolate maker starts processing by roasting the beans to bring out the flavour. Different beans from different places have different qualities and flavour. So they are often shorted and blended to produce a distinctive mix.
The next process is winnowing. The roasted beans are winnowed to remove the meat nib of the cacao bean from its shell. Then the nibs are blended. The blended nibs are grounded to make it liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. It tastes bitter.
All seeds contain some amount of fat and cacao beans are not different. However, cacao beans are half fat, which is why they ground nibs from liquid. It is pure bitter chocolate.
Example of Explanation Text – How a Cancer is Formed
How a Cancer is formed
What is cancer? It is actually a group of more than one hundred separate diseases. Most of us are fear from cancer It is reasonable because next to heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of death.
Cancer cells come from normal cells because of mutations of DNA. Those mutations can occur spontaneously. The mutations may be also induced by other factors such as: nuclear and electromagnetic radiation, viruses, bacteria and fungi, parasites, heat, chemicals in the air, water and food, mechanical cell-level injury, free radicals, evolution and ageing of DNA, etc. All such factors can produce mutations that may start cancer.
Cancer cells are formed continuously in the organism. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 cancer cells at any given time in a healthy person. Why do some result in macroscopic-level cancers and some do not? First, not all damaged cells can multiply and many of them die quickly. Second, those which potentially divide and form cancer are effectively destroyed by the mechanisms available to the immune system. Therefore cancer develops if the immune system is not working properly or the amount of cells produced is too great for the immune system to eliminate.
Example of Explanation Text – Why Seawater is Salty?
Why Seawater is Salty?
Most of our planet’s surface is covered in water – salt water. The oceans that support so much of Earth’s life are around 3.5% sodium chloride – 50 million billion tonnes of salt.
But where does it come from? While some of it comes from volcanic vents or rocks on the seabed, most of it is actually from the land around us. Every time it rains, tiny amounts of mineral salts are washed into rivers, which eventually flow into the sea.
The salt in rivers is less than 1/200th the amount usually found in seawater. It becomes more concentrated in the ocean, as the Sun’s heat causes water from the surface to evaporate, leaving the salt behind. Extra salt added every year from rivers is balanced by salt which returns to the sea floor.
But salinity isn’t the same everywhere. Towards the poles, water is not as salty because it’s diluted by melting ice, while the extra heat in the tropics makes water there saltier – and denser.
Mengapa Air Laut Asin?
Sebagian besar permukaan planet kita tertutup air – air garam. Lautan yang mendukung begitu banyak kehidupan bumi adalah sekitar 3,5% natrium klorida – 50 juta miliar ton garam.
Tapi dari mana asalnya? Meskipun sebagian datang dari ventilasi vulkanik atau batuan di dasar laut, sebagian besar adalah benar-benar berasal dari tanah di sekitar kita. Setiap kali hujan, sejumlah kecil garam mineral dicuci ke sungai, yang akhirnya mengalir ke laut.
Garam di sungai kurang dari 1/200 jumlah biasanya ditemukan dalam air laut. Hal itu menjadi lebih terkonsentrasi di laut, ketika panas matahari menyebabkan air dari permukaan menguap, meninggalkan garam di belakang. Garam tambahan ditambahkan setiap tahun dari sungai diimbangi oleh garam yang kembali ke dasar laut.
Tapi salinitas tidak sama di mana-mana. Ke arah kutub, air tidak asin karena itu diencerkan dengan pencairan es, sementara panas tambahan di daerah tropis membuat air di sana lebih asin – dan lebih padat.
Oke. I think that’s all my explanation about Explanation Text. I hope it will be useful for us. And I hope you are never bored to visit this site. Don’t forget to visit this site if you need English reference in your study. See you next time..
Rudi Hartono, Genre of Texts, (Semarang: English Department Faculty of Language and Art Semarang State University, 2005).
Text Genre, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing, Peter Knapp & Megan Watkins, New South Wales Press, Ltd : Australia
Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, Text Type in English 1-2, Australia: MacMillanEducation, 2003.