Descriptive Text; Definition, Generic Structures, Purposes, Language Features

Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh😊


Hallo everybody
DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, or in terms of writing only known as “description” is one of English lessons that should be mastered not only by junior high school students but also senior high school students, college students and anyone who loves English. Because after all, descriptive material is very necessary for the increasing of our English proficiency.

Some of the most famous authors, especially fiction writers, have good skill in writing descriptive text, so that their writing is very readable and easy to understand. Therefore, if we were able to master this lesson well, we might be able to become a great writer in the future.

Furthermore, I hope this explanation and example of the descriptive text can help my friend who is still in a long journey to learn English. Do not hesitate to read the explanation of descriptive text below, the more often we read about this text we will be able to understand it more. Furthermore it would be nice if we do not only understand mere, but we can also write descriptive text ourselves..

Maybe you are “bored” to learn narrative text, because of that, it’s time to discuss descriptive text so that our head is not merely contains stories and stories. Okey..

Descriptive Text

Definition of Descriptive Text

Descriptive Text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

In a broad sense, description, as explained by Kane (2000: 352), is defined like in the following sentence:
Description is about sensory experience—how something looks, sounds, tastes. Mostly it is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.

Thus, if we conclude it from Kane’s explanation above, the descriptive text is meaningful text that describes the experience related to the senses, such as what shape, sound, taste is. Most descriptive text is about visual experience, but in fact the experience other than the sense of sight, we can also use it to make descriptive text.

But in particular, the descriptive text is, “…… is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.”

So, it can be said that the descriptive text is a text that explains about whether a person or an object is like, whether its form, its properties, its amount and others. The purpose of the descriptive text is clear, that is to describe, represent or reveal a person or an object, either abstract or concrete.

Generic Structure of Descriptive Text

When writing descriptive text, there are some generic structures (actually not mandatory) for our writing to be true. The arrangement is:

# Identification: (contains about the introduction of a person, place, animal or object will be described.)
# Description: contains a description of something such as animal, things, place or person by describing its features, forms, colors, or anything related to what the writer describes.

Purpose of Descriptive Text

– To describe person, thing or place in specific
– To describe a particular person, thing or place.

Language Feature of Descriptive Text

– Specific participant : has a certain object, is not common and unique (only one). for example: Bandengan beach, my house, Borobudur temple, uncle Jim
– The use of the adjective (an adjective) to clarify the noun, for example: a beautiful beach, a handsome man, the famous place in Jepara, etc.
– The use of simple present tense: The sentence pattern used is simple present because it tells the fact of the object described.
– Action verb: verbs that show an activity (for example, run, sleep, walk, cut etc.)

Example of Descriptive Text – My Favorite Teacher

My favorite teacher is my history teacher, and he is by far the best teacher that I have ever had. He has the ability to make a subject that many students find incredibly boring come to life through his enthusiasm and passion for history, and his love of being a teacher. Attending his lessons is something we look forward to, not dread, like we do with most other lessons.

It’s ever so funny to watch him get excited about something, which happens in every lesson. It’s easy to know that he’s getting excited because he begins bouncing up and down slightly in a way that no other sixty-something year old would ever managed without looking completely ridiculous. He has this dark (with more and more grey streaks these days), springy hair that lines the edge of his growing bald patch, and the hair bounces up and down with him like thousands of tiny little springs. Then, he takes on his whole new persona, often going into role and becoming the character or figure he is talking about, doing the voices, the actions, and parading up and down the room gesticulating wildly, but all the while there’s a gentle ‘bounce, bounce, bounce’, as though the springs are not just on his head but on the soles of his shoes too.

A teacher that doesn’t take himself too seriously always will be a big hit with teenagers, although he’s not afraid to impose his authority if he has to. I’ve only ever heard him properly shout once (although thankfully it wasn’t it me), but it isn’t an experience that I would like to repeat. When he lost it, the room suddenly became more silent than I’d ever known it to be before. We all sat slightly paralyzed, not even anting to breathe too loudly, because hearing such a jovial and jolly little man lose his temper was a huge shock. It certainly had the right kind of impact though, because he’s never needed to shout since.

It is actually this teacher that I have to thank for my love of history. In his lessons, history does not mean copying out of textbooks and writing pages and pages of notes. History is alive; history is something tangible, that you can see, hear and feel, and we can live it through dressing up and acting out scenes or taking trips to important places of historical interest. And although he’s getting on in years and may not be teaching for much longer, he will have an important place in history for many of his students, because there has never been a teacher able to bring a subject to life in quite the same way he does.


Text ini grammar nya not good

Sumber :

“Descriptive Essay My Favorite Teacher” 27 April 2015.

Descriptive Text about Person – My Best Friend, Ernesto

My best friend is Ernesto and he is my classmate. We go to school together.

Ernesto comes from an educated family. His father is a school principal and his mother is also a teacher.

He is punctual, well-educated, and has good manners. He is really hard-working. He always does his homework. He is also well-dressed and well-behaved. All teachers have a high opinion of him.

Ernesto has a well-built body. He is gentle but fearless. He takes part in all sports, scout, trekking and mountaineering activities. He has a good heart. He is truthful, honest and obedient.

He also plays the guitar, and he makes his parents very proud of him. He secures good marks and is usually top of his class in examinations. He inspires me to work harder. He keeps me away from bad company. I am happy to have such a friend.

Taken from

Example of Descriptive Text about Experience in Waterfall

Lembah Pelangi Waterfall

Lembah Pelangi Waterfall sounds unfamiliar for either local or foreign tourists. Lembah Pelangi Waterfall is located in Sukamaju village, Ulubelu sub district, Tanggamus district, Lampung province, Indonesia. The access to this place is quite difficult because Ulu Belu sub district is a remote area in Lampung with its hilly contours which make this tourist spot elusive.

Lembah Pelangi Waterfall has two levels where the waterfall on the second level has two branches. The height of the first level waterfall is about 100 meters, while the second level waterfall is about dozens of meters. The best enchantment of this waterfall is the rainbow which appears between the valley and the waterfall as the name suggests. The soft flowing gurgling waterfall sounds is like a chant of nature which can remove the tiredness of the long trip to go there. Under the waterfall, there are several spots of warm water which can be an interesting spot for bathing.

In this place, you will be shown a panorama of natural beauty which is very interesting for every pair of eyes seeing it. Rocky hills accompanied by leafy trees will actually soothe both your eyes.


Air Terjun Lembah Pelangi

Air Terjun Lembah Pelangi, sedikit terdengar asing di telinga para wisatawan lokal maupun luar daerah. AIR Terjun Lembah ini terletak Desa Sukamaju, Kecamatan Ulubelu, Kabupaten Tanggamus, Lampung. Akses jalan menuju tempat ini memang cukup sulit karena kawasan Ulu Belu sendiri adalah satu daerah terpencil di Lampung dengan kontur berbukit membuat tempat wisata ini sulit diraih.

Air terjun Lembah Pelangi sendiri memiliki dua tingkatan, dengan air terjun pada tingkatan kedua bercabang dua. Tinggi air terjun pada tingkat pertama sekitar 100 meter, sementara air terjun tingkat ke duanya sekitar belasan meter. Pesona terbaiknya adalah pelangi yang muncul diantara lembah dan air terjun seperti namanya. Gemericik suara air terjun bagaikan nyanyian alam yang akan menghapus penat perjalanan panjang kesana. Di bawah air terjun ini ada beberapa titik sumber air hangat yang dapat menjadi tempat yang menarik untuk berendam.

Di tempat ini, anda akan disuguhkan panorama keasrian alam yang sangat memukau setiap pasang mata yang melihatnya. Lingkungan bukit berbatu yang ditemani rimbunnya pepohonan benar-benar akan menyejukkan kedua bola mata anda.

Example of Descriptive Text Tourist Attraction

Way Kambas National Park

Way Kambas National Park is a national park for elephant sanctuary located in Lampung precisely in the Labuhan Ratu sub district, East Lampung, Indonesia. Way Kambas National Park, established in 1985, is the first school for elephant in Indonesia. In the beginning of its establishment, Way Kambas National Park was named the Elephant Training Center / Pusat Latihan Gajah (PLG), but the last few years this name was changed into Elephant Conservation Center / Pusat Konservasi Gajah (PKG), which is expected to become a center for elephant conservation in taming, training, breeding and conserving elephants. Until now, this PKG has trained for about 300 elephants which have been deployed to all over the country.

In Way Kambas National Park, there are some endangered animals such as Sumatran Rhinos, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Tiger, Mentok Rimba, and Buaya Sepit. There are also some plants which are mostly found there such as Api-api, Pidada, Nipah, and Pandan. On the marshy coasts of Way Kambas National Park is often found various species of birds, such as, Lesser Adjutant, Pheasant Blue, Kuau Raja, Pependang Timur, and some other birds.


Taman Nasional Way Kambas

Taman Nasional Way Kambas adalah taman nasional untuk perlindungan gajah yang terletak di daerah Lampung tepatnya di Kecamatan Labuhan Ratu, Lampung Timur, Indonesia. Taman Nasional Way Kambas yang berdiri pada tahun 1985 merupakan sekolah gajah pertama di Indonesia. Pada awal berdirinya, Taman Nasional Way Kambas ini bernama Pusat Latihan Gajah (PLG) namun beberapa tahun terakhir ini namanya berubah menjadi Pusat Konservasi Gajah (PKG) yang diharapkan mampu menjadi pusat konservasi gajah dalam penjinakan, pelatihan, perkembangbiakan dan konservasi gajah. Hingga Saat ini PKG ini telah melatih sekitar 300 ekor gajah yang sudah disebar ke seluruh penjuru Tanah Air.

Di Taman Nasional Way Kambas ini terdapat hewan yang hampir punah di antaranya Badak Sumatera, Gajah Sumatera, Harimau Sumatera, Mentok Rimba, dan Buaya Sepit. Ada juga beberapa tanaman yang banyak diketemukan di sana seperti Api-api, Pidada, Nipah, dan Pandan. Di bagian pesisir Taman Nasional Way Kambas yang berawa juga sering ditemukan berbagai jenis burung antara lain Bangau Tongtong, Sempidan Biru, Kuau Raja, Burung Pependang Timur, dan beberapa burung lainnya.


The object Talk about one specific thing Talk about one general thing
The resourses Based on the objective fact of the thing Based on the careful observation
The example (title) My beautiful cat (describe the cat’s writer) The cat (describe cat in general)

Tips to write descriptive text :
1. Make sure to choose a meaningful person, place, or thing.
2. Introduce the person, place, or thing you are describing.
3. Engage your reader’s sense of sight.
4. Describe smells and tastes if you can.
5. Describe how the moment or item feels.
6. Describe how your subject sounds.
7. Make unique observations.
8. Include some figurative language.
9. Wrap it up.

Related Articles : Report Text ; Definition, Generic Structures, Purposes, Language Features

Oke. That’s all my explanation about descriptive text. I hope it will be useful for us. Thanks for your visiting this site.

Reference :
Rudi Hartono, Genre of Texts, (Semarang: English Department Faculty of Language and Art Semarang State University, 2005).
Text Genre, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing, Peter Knapp & Megan Watkins, New South Wales Press, Ltd : Australia
Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, Text Type in English 1-2, Australia: MacMillanEducation, 2003.

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BRITISH Course Admin is an English teacher and undergraduate student of university in central java. English is a favorite lesson during admin's study. This site is a space to share English lesson to contribute in English development for English learner. Admin hopes this site can be useful for all of us.


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