Descriptive Text (Complete Explanation)

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DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, or in terms of writing only known as “description” is one of English lessons that should be mastered not only by junior high school students but also senior high school students, college students and anyone who loves English. Because after all, descriptive material is very necessary for the increasing of our English proficiency.

Some of the most famous authors, especially fiction writers, have good skill in writing descriptive text, so that their writing is very readable and easy to understand. Therefore, if we were able to master this lesson well, we might be able to become a great writer in the future.

Furthermore, I hope this explanation and example of the descriptive text can help my friend who is still in a long journey to learn English. Do not hesitate to read the explanation of descriptive text below, the more often we read about this text we will be able to understand it more. Furthermore it would be nice if we do not only understand mere, but we can also write descriptive text ourselves..

Maybe you are “bored” to learn narrative text, because of that, it’s time to discuss descriptive text so that our head is not merely contains stories and stories. Okey..

Descriptive Text

Definition of Descriptive Text

Descriptive Text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

In a broad sense, description, as explained by Kane (2000: 352), is defined like in the following sentence:

Description is about sensory experience—how something looks, sounds, tastes. Mostly it is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.

Thus, if we conclude it from Kane’s explanation above, the descriptive text is meaningful text that describes the experience related to the senses, such as what shape, sound, taste is. Most descriptive text is about visual experience, but in fact the experience other than the sense of sight, we can also use it to make descriptive text.

But in particular, the descriptive text is, “…… is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.”

So, it can be said that the descriptive text is a text that explains about whether a person or an object is like, whether its form, its properties, its amount and others. The purpose of the descriptive text is clear, that is to describe, represent or reveal a person or an object, either abstract or concrete.

Generic Structure of Descriptive Text

When writing descriptive text, there are some generic structures (actually not mandatory) for our writing to be true. The arrangement is:

# Identification: (contains about the introduction of a person, place, animal or object will be described.)
# Description: contains a description of something such as animal, things, place or person by describing its features, forms, colors, or anything related to what the writer describes.

Purpose of Descriptive Text

– To describe person, thing or place in specific
– To describe a particular person, thing or place

Language Feature of Descriptive Text

– Specific participant : has a certain object, is not common and unique (only one). for example: Bandengan beach, my house, Borobudur temple, uncle Jim
– The use of the adjective (an adjective) to clarify the noun, for example: a beautiful beach, a handsome man, the famous place in Jepara, etc.
– The use of simple present tense: The sentence pattern used is simple present because it tells the fact of the object described.
– Action verb: verbs that show an activity (for example, run, sleep, walk, cut etc.)

Example Descriptive Text – My Favorite Teacher

My favorite teacher is my history teacher, and he is by far the best teacher that I have ever had. He has the ability to make a subject that many students find incredibly boring come to life through his enthusiasm and passion for history, and his love of being a teacher. Attending his lessons is something we look forward to, not dread, like we do with most other lessons.

It’s ever so funny to watch him get excited about something, which happens in every lesson. It’s easy to know that he’s getting excited because he begins bouncing up and down slightly in a way that no other sixty-something year old would ever managed without looking completely ridiculous. He has this dark (with more and more grey streaks these days), springy hair that lines the edge of his growing bald patch, and the hair bounces up and down with him like thousands of tiny little springs. Then, he takes on his whole new persona, often going into role and becoming the character or figure he is talking about, doing the voices, the actions, and parading up and down the room gesticulating wildly, but all the while there’s a gentle ‘bounce, bounce, bounce’, as though the springs are not just on his head but on the soles of his shoes too.

A teacher that doesn’t take himself too seriously always will be a big hit with teenagers, although he’s not afraid to impose his authority if he has to. I’ve only ever heard him properly shout once (although thankfully it wasn’t it me), but it isn’t an experience that I would like to repeat. When he lost it, the room suddenly became more silent than I’d ever known it to be before. We all sat slightly paralyzed, not even anting to breathe too loudly, because hearing such a jovial and jolly little man lose his temper was a huge shock. It certainly had the right kind of impact though, because he’s never needed to shout since.

It is actually this teacher that I have to thank for my love of history. In his lessons, history does not mean copying out of textbooks and writing pages and pages of notes. History is alive; history is something tangible, that you can see, hear and feel, and we can live it through dressing up and acting out scenes or taking trips to important places of historical interest. And although he’s getting on in years and may not be teaching for much longer, he will have an important place in history for many of his students, because there has never been a teacher able to bring a subject to life in quite the same way he does.

Text ini grammar nya not good

Sumber :
“Descriptive Essay My Favorite Teacher” 27 April 2015.

Descriptive Text about Person – My Best Friend, Ernesto

My best friend is Ernesto and he is my classmate. We go to school together.

Ernesto comes from an educated family. His father is a school principal and his mother is also a teacher.

He is punctual, well-educated, and has good manners. He is really hard-working. He always does his homework. He is also well-dressed and well-behaved. All teachers have a high opinion of him.

Ernesto has a well-built body. He is gentle but fearless. He takes part in all sports, scout, trekking and mountaineering activities. He has a good heart. He is truthful, honest and obedient.

He also plays the guitar, and he makes his parents very proud of him. He secures good marks and is usually top of his class in examinations. He inspires me to work harder. He keeps me away from bad company. I am happy to have such a friend.

Taken from

Example Descriptive Text – Michael Douglas

Michael Douglas is a very famous and popular American actor.

He is about sixty years old. He is a slim person and he is average height. He has got light brown eyes and short fair hair.

His wife is a very beautiful British actress who is named Catherine Zeta-Johns, she has got green eyes and long straight black hair.

They have got a daughter who is two years old. They all live in the United States Of America.

Text descriptive bahasa Inggris ini diambil dari


Michael Douglas adalah seorang aktor Amerika yang sangat terkenal dan populer.

Dia berumur sekitar enam puluh tahun. Badannya ramping dan tingginya juga rata-rata seperti kebanyakan orang. Matanya berwarna coklat muda dan rambutnya pendek berwarna pirang.

Istrinya adalah seorang aktris kebangsaan Inggris yang sangat cantik, yaitu Catherine Zeta Johns yang memiliki mata berwarna hijau dengan rambut hitam lurus dan panjang.

Mereka, Michael Douglas dan Catherine Zeta John, punya seorang putri yang berusia dua tahun. Mereka semua tinggal di Amerika Serikat.


The object Talk about one specific thing Talk about one general thing
The resourses Based on the objective fact of the thing Based on the careful observation
The example (title) My beautiful cat (describe the cat’s writer) The cat (describe cat in general)

Tips to write descriptive text :
1. Make sure to choose a meaningful person, place, or thing.
2. Introduce the person, place, or thing you are describing.
3. Engage your reader’s sense of sight.
4. Describe smells and tastes if you can.
5. Describe how the moment or item feels.
6. Describe how your subject sounds.
7. Make unique observations.
8. Include some figurative language.
9. Wrap it up.

Related Articles : Report Text (Complete Explanation)

Oke. That’s all my explanation about descriptive text. I hope it will be useful for us. Thanks for your visiting this site.

Reference :
Rudi Hartono, Genre of Texts, (Semarang: English Department Faculty of Language and Art Semarang State University, 2005).
Text Genre, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing, Peter Knapp & Megan Watkins, New South Wales Press, Ltd : Australia
Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, Text Type in English 1-2, Australia: MacMillanEducation, 2003.

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